FAQ(상품)

Conductive Polymer Electrolytic Capacitors

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Conductive polymer capacitors, categorized as electrolytic capacitors, differ from ceramic capacitors in terms of structure, material, and basic principle. Conductive polymer capacitors are superior to ceramic capacitors in the following aspects: (1) large capacity, (2) stable temperature characteristics *1, (3) no need to take bias characteristics into consideration *1, and (4) no need for sound prevention measures *1. (*1: Ceramic capacitors exhibit inherent disadvantages)

For normal operations, it’s basically in open mode. However, please note that a short (an increase in current leakage) can occur when it is used under severe conditions. Please check the Safety Precautions first.

In view of fully utilizing low ESR, its key feature, we cannot recommend the use of balance resistors and thus prohibit serially connecting conductive polymer capacitors as it can cause circuit malfunction. 

The POSCAP or polymer tantalum solid capacitor is created by providing an ordinary tantalum capacitor with a polymeric electrolyte, which gives the POSCAP improved low-ESR and safety characteristics. Even if the POSCAP short-circuits due to overloading, the polymeric electrolyte executes its self-recovery (insulating) function to make ignition of the capacitor highly unlikely. More detailed information on the POSCAP is available in the technical guide, so please check it.

POSCAP Technical Guide

CV stands for an equation for calculating a leak current standard value. Specifically, C represents capacitance, and V represents rated voltage. For example, when a leak current standard value of 0.3 CV is specified for a capacitor with a capacitance of 100 μF and a rated voltage of 16 V, the following equation gives an actual leak current standard value for the capacitor.
0.3 CV = 0.3×100×16 = 480 (µA)

The conductive polymer capacitor keeps its capacitance unchanged when a DC bias voltage is applied, while the MLCC has its capacitance changed by the input DC bias voltage.

Check the details of "Storage" included in the product safety precautions.

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors

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The failure mode caused by reverse voltage differs as below according to applied voltage, ambient temperature and applied frequency etc.
1. The capacitance of the capacitor decreases.
2. Electrolyte leakage due to activated pressure relief.
3. Short or open mode due to capacitor breakdown.

When the internal pressure increases of aluminum electrolytic capacitors ø8 or less, the air-tightness of the sealing rubber portion is damaged, and electrolyte gas is released from the sealing rubber side.

If the instantaneous rush current is below 100Ao-p (except OS-CON),there is no problem. For more information, please refer to the "Safety Precautions" of each product.

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are not certified by safety standards such as IEC and UL etc.

CV stands for an equation for calculating a leak current standard value. Specifically, C represents capacitance, and V represents rated voltage. For example, when a leak current standard value of 0.3 CV is specified for a capacitor with a capacitance of 100 μF and a rated voltage of 16 V, the following equation gives an actual leak current standard value for the capacitor.
0.3 CV = 0.3×100×16 = 480 (µA)

Check the details of "Storage" included in the product safety precautions.

The excessive ripple current applied causes abnormal heat generation, which significantly raises the internal temperature of the capacitor and may lead to the following cases.
1. The capacitance of the capacitor decreases.
2. Electrolyte leakage due to activated pressure relief.
3. Short or open mode due to capacitor breakdown.

The failure mode caused by overvoltage differs as below according to applied voltage, ambient temperature and applied frequency etc.
1. The capacitance of the capacitor decreases.
2. Electrolyte leakage due to activated pressure relief.
3. Short or open mode due to capacitor breakdown.

Electric Double Layer Capacitors (Gold Capacitors)

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When connecting capacitors in series, add a bleeder resistor in parallel with each capacitor by taking the leakage current into consideration so that the balance of voltages is not disrupted.
✽ Please present use condition about HZ/HW/HL series, and please contact us.

Please observe the maximum operating voltage. A voltage slightly higher will not break the product immediately, but we do not recommend such use as it does not satisfy the electric characteristics (durability, etc.) that we guarantee.

It could have a residual voltage as it can hold a large charge. The residual voltage can damage components with a low voltage resistance such as semiconductors.

A resistance is not necessary for capacitor protection purposes.

We recommend indoor storage at temperatures of 5 to 35℃ and relative humidity of 85% or less. (Recommended storage period under this condition: 1 yr or less)

Film Capacitors

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If it is a continuous vibration sound, the capacitor is fine. Applying a voltage to the capacitor generates a Coulomb force acting on both electrodes. This causes plastic films, which are dielectric materials, to vibrate mechanically, thus creating a groaning noise in some cases. This noise could be a high pitch noise when the source voltage waveform contains distortions or harmonic components. However, this does not affect the electric properties of the capacitor. In case you hear a sound or noise exceeding an allowable sound level or one that is sporadically explosive, feel free to contact us.

It must be noted that the solderbility of the external electrode  may deteriorated  when stored in an atmosphere filled with moisture, dust, or a reactive oxidizing gas (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid).
Should not location with particularly high temperature and high humidity, and store in conditions not exceeding 35 ℃ and 85 % RH.
When it is kept for a long term, the solderbility of the external electrode may deteriorate for oxidation of electrode surface.So our recommend keeping-period is within 6month. Further, it's different in the condition depending on the items, so please inquire for details.
 

The service life varies depending on the conditions (temperature, moisture, voltage, etc.)  under which it is used. Please contact us if you have any inquiries

The current allowed in a film capacitor is specified in terms of pulse current (permissible dV/dt value) and continuous current (permissible current by frequency). Check the product specifications on the following website. Please contact us for further details or if you have any inquiries.


Film capacitor Specification List

It does not comply with China Compulsory Certificate system.

Secondary Batteries (Rechargeable Batteries)

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It depends on the discharging specification and the environment of the application.
Therefore, please contact us through our business channel for more information.
For discharging characteristics, please refer to the datasheet in "Models" tab of each battery website.

Please access to the website of each battery and refer to the datasheet for basic battery characteristics in the "Models" tab.
If you need more information, please contact us through our business channel.

We are afraid that we do not design and manufacture chargers.
However, please feel free to ask us about the charging system or control method.
Also, please refer to General Comparison of Various Charging at our Ni-MH website.

No, we do not have recommended chargers.
However, for Button top type, BK80AAAB and BK200AAB, can be used with commercially available Evolta rechargeable battery chargers* .
* Chargers for both of eneloop and evolta rechargeable also can be used.

Dispose of them as industrial waste in accordance with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Act (Waste Management Law / Ministry of the Environment). For details, please consult a professional disposal company.

When disposing of the batteries, insulate them (including used batteries) by winding tape, etc. on the battery terminals.
(Contact between the battery terminals and other metal can cause a short).

*Contact us for disposal companies.

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If you need more information, please contact us through our business channel.

Primary Batteries

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It depends on the discharging specification and the environment of the application.
Therefore, please contact us through our business channel for more information.
For discharging characteristics, please refer to the datasheet in "Models" tab of each battery website.

Please access to the website of each battery and refer to the datasheet for basic battery characteristics in the "Models" tab.
If you need more information, please contact us through our business channel.

Disposal methods vary by municipality. Please dispose of the batteries in accordance with the local municipality rules.
When disposing of the batteries, insulate them (including used batteries) by, for example,  winding tape, etc. on the battery terminals or putting each battery in a separate plastic bag. (Contact between the battery terminals and other metal can cause a short).

Dispose of them as industrial waste in accordance with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Act (Waste Management Law / Ministry of the Environment). For details, please consult a professional disposal company. When disposing of the batteries, insulate them (including used batteries) by, for example,  winding tape, etc. on the battery terminals or putting each battery in a separate plastic bag. (Contact between the battery terminals and other metal can cause a short).

For the disposal (recycling) of voluntarily collected used batteries, consult a professional disposal company.

When disposing of the batteries, insulate them (including used batteries) by, for example,  winding tape, etc. on the battery terminals or putting each battery in a separate plastic bag.
(Contact between the battery terminals and other metal can cause a short).

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If you need more information, please contact us through our business channel.

Circuit Board Materials

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As for our printed Circuit Board Materials, please refer to following.

The following criteria are used to judge the adaptability of six substances. Criteria of specified toxic substances in RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) are as follows;
Cadmium (Cd) must be under 100ppm
Lead (Pb) must be under 1,000ppm
Chromium (VI) must be under 1,000ppm
Hydrargyrum (Hg) must be under 1,000ppm
PBB・PBDE under 1,000ppm

To prevent in advance the adverse effects of certain chemicals on health or ecosystems, we are properly managing chemicals in use to promote the reduction of environmental load substances. As for our Circuit Board Materials, we have abandoned the use of six RoHS-restricted above substances in all domestic and overseas products.

As for our printed Circuit Board Materials, we have abandoned the use of any RoHS restricted substances in all products. Also we don't use harmful substances such as "asbestos" or inorganic fillers containing asbestos in our all PCB materials.

PBDPE and PBBs are typical flame retardants to be used for plastics materials. Meanwhile it is preferable to avoid using those retardants in the products because they are prone to generate toxic substances, such as dioxins and freon gas.
Flame retardant for our materials (laminates and prepregs) use bromine epoxy resins and don't use the above PBDPE and PBBs at all.


*PBDPE: PolyBromo Di-Phenyl Ether
Note) PBDPE is also referred to as:
PBDE: PolyBromo Di-phenyl Ether
PBBOs: PolyBromo Biphenyl Oxides
PBDPO: PolyBromo Di-Phenyl Oxide
PBDO: PolyBromo Di-Phenyl Oxide
*PBBs: PolyBromo Biphenyls

Our lead-free compatible PCB materials shown in our WEB site are as follows ;
R-1577, R-5725, R-5775, R-1515W, R-1515A, R-1515E, R-1515B, R-1533, R-1566(W), R-1755E, R-1755C, R-1755D, R-1755M, R-1755V, R-2125.
Please see the material selection guide in WEB site if you want to need more information.
Material selection guide

Low loss, low dielectric constant materials are required for high signal speed and high frequency equipment.
We can offer PCB materials that have excellent dielectric properties and higher heat resistance with superior reliability.
We recommend R-2125, R-5785, R-5775 R-5775(N), R-5725 R-5725S, R-1577.
R-2125
R-5785
R-5775 R-5775(N)
R-5725 R-5725S
R-1577

The breakdown current depends on PCB design which is influenced by temperature rise of electrified conductors in respect to safety.
(The narrower the conductor width, the higher the temperature rise. In addition, the lower the circuit heigth, the higher the temperature rise will be.)
In general, we recommend the brakedown current to be within ten degrees or less and define the condctor width accordingly.

Generally the dielectric breakdown voltage is an air insulation breakdown: i.e. flash over voltage between circuits. Flash over voltage becomes higher if coating insulation material such as solder resist on circuits.
But It is preferable to design breakdown voltage considering some issues within solder resist such as pin holes, foreign material from a viewpoint of safety.

We decide the maximum operating temperature (MOT) using relative thermal index (RTI) recognized by UL.. MOT does NOT exceed a low RTI among a mechanical and electrical RTI. Please note that MOT is one index and does NOT guarantee the maximum temperature of continuous use. If you want to need more information please see our UL site.
-UL site

Tg reaches different values depending on measurement methods.
In general, Tg by DSC becomes close to that by TMA. Meanwhile Tg by DMA tends to become higher than that by two methods.
Tg is a important heat resistant index, but it is also necessary to consider other properties such as Td, CTE and CTE etc. in order to make PCB more robust.

Many Panasonic materials have excellant low coefficent of thermal expansion (CTE).
Low CTE is good for the through hole reliability.
Other properties such as Tg, Td and interlayer adhesion are significantly important to the reliability as well.
It is necessary to consider total balance of material properties and appropriate process conditions in order to improve PCB qualities.
Tg, CTE data

This question is often inquired.
Young's modulus is one of modulus of elasticity in tension.
It is difined as the proportional constant of Hooke's law(E=T/e)
E =T/e
E is Young's Modulus,
T is stress ,
e is stress
Flexural modulus is defined as three points of flexural test.
E = L3F/4bh3Y. E is flexural modulus, L is distance of fulcrum to fulcrum,
b is sample width,
h is sample thickness,
F is load at linear part and Y is flexure at F.
Young's modulus & Flexural modulus Data

CAF (Conductive Anodic Filaments) is the phenomenon of the electric conductor (e.g. copper ion) growing along with glass yarn from Anode side to Cathode side when PCB is electrically charged in the high humidity atmosphere.
There are two kinds of countermeasures which correspond to PCB material and processability separately. Those for PCB material are as follows;

(1)Reduction of impure residue
(2)Improvement of adhesion between resin and glass.

 

Meanwhile those of PCB processability are as follows;

(1)Elimination of crack between resin and glass
(2)Reduction of ionic matter such as desmear reagent.

 

In our MEGTRON-LAB, it can be evaluated until the applied voltage 2.5kV.
We show the insulation reliability evaluation result in the substrate material for automotive equipment.
CAF test at high voltage

The metal contained in the electronic material that is ionized by the influence of the electric field moves between interelectrode. Afterward it is extracted to the metal again by deoxidization. It is called Dendrite among the ion migration phenomena because we can see tree branch like migration under microscope observation.
We can see Dendrite growth at both anode and cathode electrodes. It depends on degree of ionized metal movement. It may change in the same test specimen under different conditions or factors.
Some of the countermeasure are as follows : improving moisture resistivity of material and reducing impure residue at PCB processing.

Migration growth is a phenomenon in which conductor metal is ionized and shifts by the potential difference between conductors and by moisture in the operating environment.
It is classified into two modes : Dendrite growth and CAF (See FAQ subjects )

Chip Resistors

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The capacitor under normal service conditions is basically in open mode (in which the resistance increases). However, under harsh service conditions, it may operate in short mode (in which the resistance decreases). For more detailed information on this subject, see the following pages.

Chip Resistors - Failure by Usage Environment and Failure Mode

Our chip resistor is non-induction type.

Please check Panasonic web site for updated value for some rated power values are revised after re-evaluation(change from 0.25w to 0.5w e.g.) which may not be updated on components sales sites.

Circuit Protection (ESD, Surge, Fuse etc.)

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When ZNR surge absorbers are connected in parallel, a surge current may concentrate on a surge absorber with a smaller clamp voltage, in which case surge current division is hardly effective. We recommend you to choose a ZNR surge absorber that withstands a large surge current instead.

The ZNR surge absorber can be used repeatedly. The performance of the ZNR surge absorber against repetitive electric surges is specified in an impulse-applied lifetime characteristics chart on the ZNR series products datasheet. The impulse-applied lifetime characteristics chart specifies the duration of wave tail of a surge current, the peak value of a surge current, and an allowable number of times of surge application.

Having continuous voltage/current characteristics, the ZNR surge absorber makes no such switching actions as a discharge tube type (gas discharge tube or GDT) surge absorber does. Therefore, the ZNR surge absorber has no specific point of starting its operation; that is, it starts operating at any point of time without delay.

The E series has been created by significantly improving the V series in size and performance through Panasonic's original material design/processing technologies.
Click here for details.
Introduction to E series, a compact and high-performance ZNR

The ZNR surge absorber fails in short mode. However, when energy far exceeding the energy rating is applied to the ZNR surge absorber to bring it into a state of mechanical destruction, it may fail in open mode.

The failure of ZNR can be judged by measuring the varistor's voltage.
The voltage of the varistor can be measured from terminals at a constant current power supply of DC 1mA, within 1 sec. The varistor should be measured separately from the PCB to prevent from affecting other components. If the voltage change rate is over +/-10% after usage, the varistor can be judged as failure, however, it is difficult to obtain the initial value. In that case, the failure can be judged if the voltage of varistor is over 10% or more comparing with rated voltage. However, the judgment accuracy decreases.

If the deterioration indicator turns red, it means the surge absorber has an open circuit and is no longer capable of protection against electric surges. Replace it with a new one.

It is written on the datasheet standard part number list. Further, the official documents of Safety Standard will be provided via sales channels, therefore, please apply to our sales sections or distributions in contact with you.

Thermal protection sheet (Graphite Sheet (PGS)/PGS applied products/NASBIS)

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PGS stands for Pyrolytic Graphite Sheet.

99.9% of the material is carbon.
PGS is made by thermal decomposition that the polymer film is burned in a state of high temperature and oxygen-free.
This process was developed by Panasonic first in the world.

The natural graphite sheet is made by press molding of nature graphite powder into a sheet while PGS is made by thermal decomposition of one sheet of polymer film at very high temperature.
Therefore, PGS is highly crystallized and has high thermal conductivity compared to
the natural graphite.

It is 700 to 1950 (W/m·K) in the X-Y direction.

The thermal conductivity in Z direction is approximately 10 ~ 20 (w / mk). The graphite sheet keeps high-thermal conductivity by a covalent bonding of carbon crystal structure, firmly bonded in XY direction.
However, as anisotropic material, the thermal conductivity in Z direction bonded by intermolecular bonds differs from that of XY direction. In addition, the above mentioned thermal conductivity varies according to measurement condition, is not a guaranteed value.

The thermal conductivity shows the heat energy carried when there is a temperature difference of 1 ℃ at a distance of 1m, the larger the heat energy, the heat flow is easier to be carried.
The thermal conductivity can be calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity, density and specific heat.

It is conductive for it uses the carbon material.
PGS can be covered by PET tape etc. if withstand voltage is necessary.

PGS itself is 400 ℃.
If PGS is bonded with adhesive tape or PET tape, the withstand temperature will be lower than  400 ℃ according to that of the tape. In this case, the withstand temperature is around  100 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ according to different types of tapes.

The PGS itself does not generate gas.
However, the gas may be generated from the tape material bonded.

Most of the PGS graphite sheet is delivered in custom shape. In this case, the exchange of specifications in PDF and CAD is necessary.
And the punching die also becomes necessary.

It is possible use by stacking.
This is effective in diffusing the heat in the X-Y direction.

Because PGS is strong to pull strength and flexible, it can be bended without folds.
However, the acceptable bending possibility is different depends on products, please contact us for details.

The offset processing is to make double-sided tape or PET tape larger than PGS size. As a result, it is prevented that PGS, the conductive material is exposed from product edge.

In case PGS, the conductive material is exposed on the edge of the product.
Since there are circuits near PGS, if the edge of the product is touched for some reason, the short circuit may occur. Therefore offset process is necessary as a measure.

It is possible.
However, the PGS need to be pressed to decrease the thermal resistance.

It is ok, however, please pay attention to use where the short circuit may occur if the cutting scraps of graphite sheet fall on the circuit.

FA

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Yes, it is. In that case, you have only to use the user definition-type preparation function equiped as an optional software. When it is used, a C language is used.

It is not necessary. But, when dust and so on sticks, wipe a surface with a clean cotton stick because that dust is measured as a measurement object. And, clean room is not needed, but in a same reason, analytic processing of the measurement data after a measurement becomes easier if the measurement is done in the clean room.(reference : specifications)

It is done for a measurement machine to find a center of the measurement thing automatically(auto centering function). And, as for the compensation of the deviation to the optical axis after the measurement, as it is to be corrected automatically(auto arigment function) by the date analysis software (arigment software), the experienced skill is not necessary.

Ruby stylus of radius 0.5mm is used for the form measurement,and especially big object is measured early.Diamond stylus of radius 2µm is used for the roughness measurement and small objects

Generally speaking, a slope angle is getting bigger, the power in the side direction to probe gets bigger, therefore measurement becomes difficult. It is the strong point that measurement accuracy is high to any slope angles by rising the rigidity of AFP in the side direction. And as it is the easiest to measure at zero degrees of slope angle, when a slope angle is lower, the measurement accuracy gets better.

Power Inductors for Consumer(Not applicable)

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Select a product with low inductor loss (DC resistance and AC resistance at the drive frequency).

As the amount of DC current flowing through inductors increases, magnetic substances reach magnetic saturation, thereby lowering the inductance value.
This is referred to as the DC bias characteristic.

The current value is specified based on either the change rate of the inductance or the inherent temperature rise when DC is applied.

The inductance change rate and inherent temperature rise vary by product. Please see the datasheet for details.

Power Inductors for Automotive application(Not applicable)

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The current value is specified based on either the change rate of the inductance or the inherent temperature rise when DC is applied.
The inductance change rate and inherent temperature rise vary by product. Please see the datasheet for details.
 

As the amount of DC current flowing through inductors increases, magnetic substances reach magnetic saturation, thereby lowering the inductance value.
This is referred to as the DC bias characteristic.

Select a product with low inductor loss (DC resistance and AC resistance at the drive frequency).

Magnetic flux inside the coil changes its direction depending on the direction of the winding and that of the current flowing through the winding. This results in noise performance differences under different service conditions. For this reason, the coil is provided with the polarity marks that give the user a reference position for coil configuration when the direction of coil mounting needs to be regulated. However, mounting the coil in the wrong direction hardly poses a problem; it does not affect the characteristics and reliability of the capacitor at all.

The storage requirements are as follows.
Temperature; -5 to 35°C
Humidity; 85% RH or lower
Storage period; one year or less.

Its MSL is 1. However, this does not apply to some other types of products. Please check the datasheet.

A warranty on its soldering structure is effective for one year or less.

Compressors

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Although the fluorocarbons used to date as refrigerants for refrigeration and air conditioning have seen improvements, for instance, their ozone depletion potential (ODP) has been cut to zero, it has not been possible to reduce their global warming potential (GWP). It is in this context that natural refrigerants (such as CO2, ammonia and hydrocarbons), which are found in the natural world and have zero ODP and a GWP of 0 to 1, have come into the spotlight.
Among them, CO2 is a leading light for its attractive advantages: it has no drawbacks such as toxicity or flammability, and there is no need to recover the refrigerant when the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment that has been using it is scrapped

Refrigerant ODP GWP Combustibility Toxicity Recovery
Natural refrigerants CO2 0 1 Non-inflammable No Not required
HC 0 <3 High flammable No Required
NH3 0 ≈0 Low flammable Yes Not required
HFC R134a 0 1300 Non-inflammable No Required
R410A 0 1900 Non-inflammable No Required
R407C 0 1600 Non-inflammable No Required
HCFC R22 0.055 1700 Non-inflammable No Required

*ODP: Ozone depletion potential; GWP: Global warming potential

Refrigerants have an impact on global warming at three stages:
1.When the refrigerants themselves are manufactured
2.When they are sealed inside equipment which is then operated
3.When the equipment is disposed of, recycled or broken up

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), for instance, excel at Stage 2, but consume great amounts of energy at Stages 1 and 3 so this increases their overall impact on global warming.
When CO2 refrigerants are used in the heat pumps for hot water heaters, for example, they consume very little energy at all Stages 1, 2 and 3. Even if they are released to the atmosphere at Stage 3, their impact on the environment is negligible and their impact on global warming is minimal.

This is a tough question.
First, in terms of the CO2 refrigerants used in heat pump water heaters, there is a good affinity between these refrigerants and the equipment, and these products are being developed all the time. Equipment that combines heat pumps for cooling and heating and water heaters are being developed as well.
CO2 is also starting to be used in some cooling-only vending machines, and it has become clear that, with some innovation and fine-tuning, it is possible to create CO2 equipment that consumes less power than conventional equipment. There is also the potential for CO2 to be used in many other types of equipment, with some innovation and fine-tuning, and a number of companies are working on such development.

To obtain the CO2 used as refrigerants, the CO2 that is generated during the manufacturing activities of oil and other industries is trapped and turned into refrigerants so that the amount of CO2 refrigerants that is released to the atmosphere does not double the impact on the environment.

CO2 refrigerants do have a higher pressure than HFC refrigerants, but they are safe, provided the equipment is designed to support these high pressures. In order to ensure that our compressors will be used safely, we have developed and designed them with a safety factor that is three times greater than the design pressure

Semiconductors

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Built-in Sensors

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Our gauge type pressure sensors have atmospheric pressure inlet hole.
This hole is positioned to introduce atmospheric air pressure. Please avoid use when the atmospheric pressure inlet is blocked.

Pressure sensor will have not correct detection when the atmospheric pressure inlet hole can be occupied by resin (Potting).
Please avoid use when the atmospheric pressure inlet is blocked. (except potting type, this type is OK).

You can not wash. If the washing water and cleaning go into the sensor, it may cause a error.

Please avoid using in humid environments, such as condensation, since this may cause breaks.

As the connection method is different depending on the rated pressure, see the following attachments.

How to connect the Pressure Sensor